Paula Radcliffe on the health condition you probably didn't realise she had. Both of these kits deliver drugs using autoinjectors. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Lacosamide Lamotrigine Rufinamide Topiramate Zonisamide. OTHER This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional.
The only: What is diazepam used to treat
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|What is diazepam used to treat||Valium 5 mg, yellow, round. Rinsho Shinkeigaku in Japanese. Glutethimide Methyprylon Piperidione Pyrithyldione. Some side effects can be serious and may require immediate medical treatment: Diazepam concentrate liquid comes with a specially marked dropper for measuring the dose. Discuss the use of grapefruit products with your doctor.|
However, other medicines may be safely used in pregnancy or breastfeeding providing the benefits to the mother outweigh the risks to the unborn baby. Always inform your doctor if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, before using any medicine. Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways.
The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with this medicine. Just because a side effect is stated here does not mean that all people using this medicine will experience that or any side effect. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist if you want any more information about the possible side effects of this medicine. It is important to tell your doctor or pharmacist what medicines you are already taking, including those bought without a prescription and herbal medicines, before you start treatment with this medicine.
Similarly, check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any new medicines while taking this one, to make sure that the combination is safe. There may be an increased risk of drowsiness and sedation if diazepam is taken with any of the following which can also cause drowsiness:. The following medicines may prevent the breakdown of diazepam in the body. As this could increase the blood level of diazepam and its sedative effects, as well as the risk of its side effects, your doctor may need to prescribe you a lower than normal dose of diazepam if you are taking any of these medicines: Diazepam may enhance the blood pressure lowering effect of medicines that lower blood pressure , particularly medicines used to treat high blood pressure antihypertensives , diuretic medicines and nitrates for angina.
This may cause dizziness, which can usually be relieved by lying down until the symptoms pass. The following medicines may decrease the blood level of diazepam. As this could make it less effective, your doctor may need to prescribe you a larger than normal dose of diazepam if you are taking any of these medicines:. Caffeine and theophylline may reduce the sedative and anxiety-reducing effects of diazepam.
Diazepam may reduce the effectiveness of levodopa in treating Parkinson's disease. Diazepam may increase or decrease blood levels of the anticonvulsant medicine phenytoin. Diazepam is available generically without a brand name as tablets, syrup, injection and rectal tubes. For background information about our medicine factsheets, including the references used to produce them, click here.
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Short-term two to four weeks only treatment of severe insomnia that is disabling or subjecting the individual to extreme distress oral forms of diazepam only. Relieving anxiety and causing sedation before surgery or medical procedures pre-med. Managing symptoms of withdrawal from alcohol used in combination with other treatment for alcoholism.
Controlling convulsions fits caused by poisoning intravenous and rectal forms of diazepam only. Controlling repeated fitting with no recovery of conciousness between seizures status epilepticus intravenous and rectal forms of diazepam only. Controlling fitting associated with fever febrile convulsions. Controlling muscle spasms, for example due to tetanus or poisoning. What are the possible side effects of Diazepam?
Drowsiness, including drowsiness and lightheadedness the next day. Shaky movements and unsteady walk ataxia. Loss of memory amnesia. Disturbances of the gut such as diarrhoea, constipation, nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain. Paradoxical effects such as restlessness, agitation, irritability, aggression. Difficulty passing urine urinary retention. Tolerance to the cognitive-impairing effects of benzodiazepines does not tend to develop with long-term use, and the elderly are more sensitive to them.
Benzodiazepines may also cause or worsen depression. Drug tolerance may also develop to infusions of diazepam if it is given for longer than 24 hours. Less commonly, paradoxical side effects can occur, including nervousness, irritability, excitement, worsening of seizures, insomnia, muscle cramps, changes in libido , and in some cases, rage and violence.
These adverse reactions are more likely to occur in children, the elderly, and individuals with a history of drug or alcohol abuse and or aggression. Diazepam may impair the ability to drive vehicles or operate machinery. The impairment is worsened by consumption of alcohol, because both act as central nervous system depressants. During the course of therapy, tolerance to the sedative effects usually develops, but not to the anxiolytic and myorelaxant effects.
Patients with severe attacks of apnea during sleep may suffer respiratory depression hypoventilation , leading to respiratory arrest and death. Diazepam, as with other benzodiazepine drugs, can cause tolerance, physical dependence, substance use disorder , and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Withdrawal from diazepam or other benzodiazepines often leads to withdrawal symptoms similar to those seen during barbiturate or alcohol withdrawal.
The higher the dose and the longer the drug is taken, the greater the risk of experiencing unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms can occur from standard dosages and also after short-term use, and can range from insomnia and anxiety to more serious symptoms, including seizures and psychosis. Withdrawal symptoms can sometimes resemble pre-existing conditions and be misdiagnosed. Diazepam may produce less intense withdrawal symptoms due to its long elimination half-life.
Benzodiazepine treatment should be discontinued as soon as possible by a slow and gradual dose reduction regimen. Dose increases may overcome the effects of tolerance, but tolerance may then develop to the higher dose and adverse effects may increase. The mechanism of tolerance to benzodiazepines includes uncoupling of receptor sites, alterations in gene expression , down-regulation of receptor sites, and desensitisation of receptor sites to the effect of GABA.
About one-third of individuals who take benzodiazepines for longer than four weeks become dependent and experience withdrawal syndrome on cessation. Rebound anxiety, more severe than baseline anxiety, is also a common withdrawal symptom when discontinuing diazepam or other benzodiazepines. Improper or excessive use of diazepam can lead to dependence. Patients from the aforementioned groups should be monitored very closely during therapy for signs of abuse and development of dependence.
Therapy should be discontinued if any of these signs are noted, although if dependence has developed, therapy must still be discontinued gradually to avoid severe withdrawal symptoms. Long-term therapy in such instances is not recommended. People suspected of being dependent on benzodiazepine drugs should be very gradually tapered off the drug.
Withdrawals can be life-threatening, particularly when excessive doses have been taken for extended periods of time. Equal prudence should be used whether dependence has occurred in therapeutic or recreational contexts. An individual who has consumed too much diazepam typically displays one or more of these symptoms in a period of approximately four hours immediately following a suspected overdose: Although not usually fatal when taken alone, a diazepam overdose is considered a medical emergency and generally requires the immediate attention of medical personnel.
The antidote for an overdose of diazepam or any other benzodiazepine is flumazenil Anexate. This drug is only used in cases with severe respiratory depression or cardiovascular complications. Because flumazenil is a short-acting drug, and the effects of diazepam can last for days, several doses of flumazenil may be necessary. Artificial respiration and stabilization of cardiovascular functions may also be necessary. Though not routinely indicated, activated charcoal can be used for decontamination of the stomach following a diazepam overdose.
Dialysis is minimally effective. Hypotension may be treated with levarterenol or metaraminol. Overdoses of diazepam with alcohol, opiates or other depressants may be fatal. If diazepam is administered concomitantly with other drugs, attention should be paid to the possible pharmacological interactions. Particular care should be taken with drugs that potentiate the effects of diazepam, such as barbiturates, phenothiazines , opioids , and antidepressants.
Diazepam does not increase or decrease hepatic enzyme activity, and does not alter the metabolism of other compounds. No evidence would suggest diazepam alters its own metabolism with chronic administration. Agents with an effect on hepatic cytochrome P pathways or conjugation can alter the rate of diazepam metabolism. These interactions would be expected to be most significant with long-term diazepam therapy, and their clinical significance is variable.
Diazepam is a long-acting "classical" benzodiazepine. Other classical benzodiazepines include chlordiazepoxide , clonazepam , lorazepam , oxazepam , nitrazepam , temazepam , flurazepam , bromazepam , and clorazepate. Diazepam inhibits acetylcholine release in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes. This has been found by measuring sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in mouse brain cells in vitro , after pretreatment of the mice with diazepam in vivo.
This may play a role in explaining diazepam's anticonvulsant properties. Diazepam binds with high affinity to glial cells in animal cell cultures. Binding of benzodiazepines to this receptor complex promotes binding of GABA, which in turn increases the total conduction of chloride ions across the neuronal cell membrane. This increased chloride ion influx hyperpolarizes the neuron's membrane potential.
As a result, the difference between resting potential and threshold potential is increased and firing is less likely. As a result, the arousal of the cortical and limbic systems in the central nervous system is reduced. Diazepam appears to act on areas of the limbic system , thalamus , and hypothalamus , inducing anxiolytic effects. Benzodiazepine drugs including diazepam increase the inhibitory processes in the cerebral cortex.
The anticonvulsant properties of diazepam and other benzodiazepines may be in part or entirely due to binding to voltage-dependent sodium channels rather than benzodiazepine receptors. Sustained repetitive firing seems limited by benzodiazepines' effect of slowing recovery of sodium channels from inactivation. The muscle relaxant properties of diazepam are produced via inhibition of polysynaptic pathways in the spinal cord.
Diazepam can be administered orally, intravenously must be diluted, as it is painful and damaging to veins , intramuscularly IM , or as a suppository. When administered orally, it is rapidly absorbed and has a fast onset of action. The onset of action is one to five minutes for IV administration and 15—30 minutes for IM administration. The duration of diazepam's peak pharmacological effects is 15 minutes to one hour for both routes of administration.
The half-life of diazepam in general is 30—56 hours. The distribution half-life of diazepam is two to 13 minutes. When diazepam is administered IM, absorption is slow, erratic, and incomplete. Diazepam is highly lipid-soluble, and is widely distributed throughout the body after administration. It easily crosses both the blood—brain barrier and the placenta , and is excreted into breast milk. After absorption, diazepam is redistributed into muscle and adipose tissue. Continual daily doses of diazepam quickly build to a high concentration in the body mainly in adipose tissue , far in excess of the actual dose for any given day.
Diazepam is stored preferentially in some organs, including the heart. Absorption by any administered route and the risk of accumulation is significantly increased in the neonate , and withdrawal of diazepam during pregnancy and breast feeding is clinically justified. It has several pharmacologically active metabolites. The main active metabolite of diazepam is desmethyldiazepam also known as nordazepam or nordiazepam.
Its other active metabolites include the minor active metabolites temazepam and oxazepam. These metabolites are conjugated with glucuronide, and are excreted primarily in the urine. Because of these active metabolites, the serum values of diazepam alone are not useful in predicting the effects of the drug. Diazepam has a biphasic half-life of about one to three days, and two to seven days for the active metabolite desmethyldiazepam.
Diazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine. It is odorless, and has a slightly bitter taste. The British Pharmacopoeia lists it as being very slightly soluble in water, soluble in alcohol, and freely soluble in chloroform. The United States Pharmacopoeia lists diazepam as soluble 1 in 16 ethyl alcohol, 1 in 2 of chloroform, 1 in 39 ether , and practically insoluble in water. The pH of diazepam is neutral i. The solution for parenteral injection should be protected from light and kept from freezing.
The oral forms should be stored in air-tight containers and protected from light. Diazepam can absorb into plastics, so liquid preparations should not be kept in plastic bottles or syringes, etc. As such, it can leach into the plastic bags and tubing used for intravenous infusions. Absorption appears to depend on several factors, such as temperature, concentration, flow rates, and tube length.
Diazepam should not be administered if a precipitate has formed and does not dissolve. Diazepam may be quantified in blood or plasma to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients, provide evidence in an impaired driving arrest, or to assist in a medicolegal death investigation. Blood or plasma diazepam concentrations are usually in a range of 0.
Most commercial immunoassays for the benzodiazepine class of drugs cross-react with diazepam, but confirmation and quantitation are usually performed using chromatographic techniques. Diazepam was the second benzodiazepine invented by Leo Sternbach of Hoffmann-La Roche at the company's Nutley, New Jersey , facility  following chlordiazepoxide Librium , which was approved for use in Released in as an improved version of Librium, diazepam became incredibly popular, helping Roche to become a pharmaceutical industry giant.
After this initial success, other pharmaceutical companies began to introduce other benzodiazepine derivatives. The benzodiazepines gained popularity among medical professionals as an improvement over barbiturates , which have a comparatively narrow therapeutic index , and are far more sedative at therapeutic doses. The benzodiazepines are also far less dangerous; death rarely results from diazepam overdose, except in cases where it is consumed with large amounts of other depressants such as alcohol or opioids.
Marketed by Roche using an advertising campaign conceived by the William Douglas McAdams Agency under the leadership of Arthur Sackler,  diazepam was the top-selling pharmaceutical in the United States from to , with peak annual sales in of 2. It is also the first line of defense for a rare disorder called stiff-person syndrome. Diazepam is a drug of potential abuse and can cause drug dependence.
Urgent action by national governments has been recommended to improve prescribing patterns of benzodiazepines such as diazepam. Diazepam drug misuse can occur either through recreational misuse where the drug is taken to achieve a high or when the drug is continued long term against medical advice. Sometimes, it is used by stimulant users to "come down" and sleep and to help control the urge to binge. In this regard, benzodiazepines are second only to opiates , the study found in Males abuse benzodiazepines as commonly as females.
Other benzodiazepines and zolpidem and zopiclone also were found in high numbers. Many drivers had blood levels far exceeding the therapeutic dose range, suggesting a high degree of abuse potential for benzodiazepines and zolpidem and zopiclone. Diazepam was the most commonly detected benzodiazepine. Diazepam is regulated in most countries as a prescription drug:. The states of California and Florida offer diazepam to condemned inmates as a pre-execution sedative as part of their lethal injection program, although the state of California has not executed a prisoner since Diazepam is used as a short-term sedative and anxiolytic for cats and dogs,  sometimes used as an appetite stimulant.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. D Evidence of risk. S4 Prescription only CA: Archived from the original on Principles of addiction medicine 4 ed. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. National Institute of Health: National Library of Medicine. Oral surgery for the general dentist. A Review of the Literature".Side Effects of Valium