Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done. Positive evidence of human fetal risk. Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Chloramphenicol, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, diazepam, dimenhydrinate, methohexital, pentazocine, pentobarbital, secobarbital, sodium bicarbonate, thiopental.
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Surgery Preoperative reduction of saliva or intraoperative reduction of cholinergic effects Preoperative: Surgery Preoperative reduction of saliva or intraoperative reduction of cholinergic effects 1 month to 2 years preoperative: May repeat qmin; not to exceed 0. Safety and efficacy not established years: Control of Secretions Off-label 0.
Neuromuscular Blockade Reversal 0. Significant - Monitor Closely. All Interactions Sort By: Postmarketing Reports Angioedema Paradoxical bronchospasm Dysphonia. Warnings Contraindications Hypersensitivity to glycopyrrolate or other ingredients Medical conditions that preclude anticholinergic therapy eg, angle-closure glaucoma, obstructive uropathy, GI obstruction, paralytic ileus, intestinal atony of elderly or debilitated patient; unstable cardiovascular status in acute hemorrhage; severe ulcerative colitis, toxic megacolon, myasthenia gravis, reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia, mitral stenosis Concomitant use of solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride.
Excretion in milk unknown; use with caution Pregnancy Categories A: Pharmacology Mechanism of Action Competitively inhibits action of ACh on autonomic effectors innervated by postganglionic nerves Inhibits salivation, tracheobronchial secretions, bradycardia, and hypotension. Mainly as unchanged drug in feces via biliary elimination and in urine. Administration IV Incompatibilities Additive: Methylprednisolone sodium succinate Syringe: Atropine, hydroxyzine, lidocaine, meperidine, morphine.
IV Administration Inspect product visually to ensure there is no particulate matter Administer at a rate of 0. Print without Office Info. Print with Office Info. Formulary Formulary Patient Discounts. Create Your List of Plans. The drug is also used to treat sinus bradycardia, sinoatrial arrest, incomplete AV block where anticholinergic therapy may be beneficial.
When cholinergic agents such as neostigmine or pyridostigmine are used to reverse neuromuscular blockade due to non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, glycopyrrolate may administered simultaneously to prevent the peripheral muscarinic effects of the cholinergic agent. In dogs, following IV administration, the onset of action is generally within one minute. After IM or SQ administration, peak effects occur approximately minutes post injection.
The vagolytic effects persist for hours and the antisialagogue reduced salivation effects persist for up to 7 hours. After oral administration, the anticholinergic effects of glycopyrrolate may persist for hours. Little information is available regarding the distributory aspects of glycopyrrolate. Being a quaternary ammonium compound, glycopyrrolate is completely ionized. Therefore, it has poor lipid solubility and does not readily penetrate into the CNS or eye.
Glycopyrrolate crosses the placenta only marginally; it is unknown if it is excreted into milk. Glycopyrrolate is eliminated rapidly from the serum after IV administration and virtually no drug remains in the serum 30 minutes to 3 hours after dosing. Only a small amount is metabolized and the majority is eliminated unchanged in the feces and urine. However, it would be prudent to refer to the recommendations listed in the atropine monograph regarding contraindications and precautions.
The manufacturer of the veterinary product Robins lists only mydriasis, tachycardia, and xerostomia as adverse effects in dogs and cats at the doses they recommend. For more information refer to the atropine monograph. Because of its quaternary structure, it would be expected that minimal CNS effects would occur after an overdose of glycopyrrolate when compared to atropine.